Node.js basically executes JavaScript code outside a web browser. It is an open-source, back-end JavaScript runtime environment. Node.js allows developers to write command line tools using JavaScript. It also allows server-side scripting for producing dynamic web page content prior to the user’s web browser receives the page. Apparently, Node.js is focused on implementing JavaScript everywhere and unifying web-application research over a single programming language. Using different script for server-side and client-side may be troublesome.

Despite.js being the standard filename extension for JavaScript, Node.js does not mean much in the original context and is not more than a name of the product. Node.js has now colluded with JS Foundation to establish OpenJS Foundation facilitated by Collaborative Projects program of Linux Foundation. It is a distributed development and was previously governed by the Node.js Foundation.

Overview:

Node.js is used to create Web servers and networking tools through JavaScript and collect core functional modules. Modules are given for binary data, cryptography functions, networking, file system I/O and several other core functions. To reduce the complexity in writing server applications Node.js uses API designs. Node.js natively supports only JavaScript programming language, but can also be written in Dart, TypeScript, CoffeeScript etc.

Platform architecture:

Node.js enables the growth of fast web servers in JavaScript by bringing event-driven programming to web servers. Developers can produce sizeable servers without the use of threading through a basic simplified model of event-driven programming. It indicates the completion of task using call-backs. Node is well versed with online fundamentals like DNS, TCP, and HTTP.

Industry support:

There are numerous open-source libraries for Node.js, in which most of them are hosted on the npm website. The Node.js developer has IRC channel #node.js and two main mailing lists on freenode. The open-source community has produced web application frameworks to increase the speed of application development. The integrated development environment (IDE) of latest desktop allows editing and debugging features particularly for Node.js applications. The IDE also includes Brackets, Atom, MS Visual Studio and Visual Studio Code. Few online based IDE’s also support Node.js, like Codency, Cloud9 IDE, Koding and the Node-RED visual flow editor.

Technical details:

· Internals:

Node.js implements libuv under hood to manage non-sync events. It is an abstraction layer for file system and network operating functionally on Linux, macOS, Windows and Unix.

· Threading:

Node.js works on a single-thread event loop, with non-blocking I/O calls that allow it to support numerous numbers of connections without meeting the cost thread of context switching. The idea of single thread is being implemented among all other requests because of its observer pattern method. This is used for building highly concurrent applications. A thread pool manages to execute parallel tasks in Node.js. The registered call-back is triggered only when a thread in the thread pool finishes a task and informs the main thread regarding that. A dis-advantage of this approach is that Node.js blocks vertical scaling. The default numbers of thread are increased to meet this difficulty.

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